Andrew Darrell Krystal

Andrew Darrell Krystal

Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

External Address: 
54221 Hosp South, Durham, NC 27710
Internal Office Address: 
Box 3309 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710
Phone: 
919.681.8742

Overview

My research is focused on better understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders and mood disorders and developing improved treatments for these conditions. My primary research tools are: electroencepahlography (EEG), polysomnography (PSG), computer signal analysis and modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and positron emission tomograophy (PET). Nearly all of my projects have been carried out with humans, however, projects are ongoing with gene knock-out models in mice, and lemurs in collaboration with the Duke Primate Center. A few representative current studies are: 1) Defining physiologic (EEG, PSG, PET, fMRI) correlates of sleep complaints and subtyping insomnia on the basis of the associated pathophysiology, 2) Studying the relationship of EEG data recorded during non-REM sleep, daytime function, and insomnia treatment response, 3) Developing new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for insomnia, 4) Studying the relationship of natural sleep and hibernation-like phenomena (torpor), 5) Predicting depression treatment response on the basis of pre-treatment EEG and structural MRI data.

Education & Training

  • M.D., Duke University 1987

Selected Grants

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hypertension awarded by Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (Significant Contributor). 2017 to 2020

KOR Phase 2A Study - Mod 3 (Advanced Understanding) awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2017

Modified KOR Phase 2A Study awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2017

Janssen OBSERVEMDD0001 awarded by Janssen Research & Development, LLC (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

2/3 Reducing Suicide Ideation Through Insomnia Treatment (REST-IT) awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2012 to 2017

Multicenter Study of the Safety and Efficacy of JZP-110 awarded by Jazz Pharmaceuticals (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) as a Treatment for Acute Fear awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

The Duke Multidisciplinary Training Program in Pediatric Lung Disease awarded by National Institutes of Health (Faculty Member). 2010 to 2016

An Open-Label and Double-Blind Study to Investigate Evoked Potentials as Markers of Ketamine-Induced Cortical Plasticity awarded by Janssen Research & Development, LLC (Principal Investigator). 2013 to 2015

Pages

Krystal, A. D. “Benzodiazepine receptor agonists: Indications, efficacy, and outcome.” Insomnia: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2016, pp. 375–86.

Krystal, A. D. “Psychiatric disorders and EEG.” Niedermeyer’s Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields: Sixth Edition, 2012, pp. 1113–27.

Krystal, A. D. “Sleep and psychiatric disorders.” Handbook of Sleep Medicine, 2011.

Low, Y., and A. D. Krystal. “Daytime sleepiness in insomnia patients.” Sleepiness: Causes, Consequences and Treatment, 2011, pp. 168–75. Scopus, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511762697.018. Full Text

Krystal, A. D. “Pharmacologic Treatment: Other Medications.” Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine: Fifth Edition, 2010, pp. 916–30. Scopus, doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-6645-3.00082-7. Full Text

Krystal, A. D. “Geriatric psychopharmacology: An overview.” Principles and Practice of Geriatric Sleep Medicine, 2009, pp. 327–31. Scopus, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511770661.034. Full Text

Richey, S. M., and A. D. Krystal. “Sleep medications: When to prescribe and rationale for use.” Sleep Disorders: Diagnosis and Therapeutics, 2008, pp. 268–80.

Hatch, Guy M., et al. “Is cellular energy monitoring more responsive to hypoxia than pulse oximetry?Sleep Breath, vol. 24, no. 4, Dec. 2020, pp. 1633–43. Pubmed, doi:10.1007/s11325-020-02104-2. Full Text

Shi, Guangsen, et al. “Mutations in Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 Contribute to Natural Short Sleep Trait.Curr Biol, Oct. 2020. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.cub.2020.09.071. Full Text

Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R., et al. “Feasibility and Acceptability of Wearable Sleep Electroencephalogram Device Use in Adolescents: Observational Study.Jmir Mhealth Uhealth, vol. 8, no. 10, Oct. 2020, p. e20590. Pubmed, doi:10.2196/20590. Full Text

McCall, William V., et al. “Blinding and bias in a hypnotic clinical trial.Hum Psychopharmacol, Sept. 2020, p. e2757. Pubmed, doi:10.1002/hup.2757. Full Text

Pizzagalli, Diego A., et al. “Selective kappa-opioid antagonism ameliorates anhedonic behavior: evidence from the Fast-fail Trial in Mood and Anxiety Spectrum Disorders (FAST-MAS).Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 45, no. 10, Sept. 2020, pp. 1656–63. Epmc, doi:10.1038/s41386-020-0738-4. Full Text

Rumble, Meredith E., et al. “An exploratory analysis of the association of circadian rhythm dysregulation and insomnia with suicidal ideation over the course of treatment in individuals with depression, insomnia, and suicidal ideation.Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine : Jcsm : Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, vol. 16, no. 8, Aug. 2020, pp. 1311–19. Epmc, doi:10.5664/jcsm.8508. Full Text

Morin, Charles M., et al. “Effectiveness of Sequential Psychological and Medication Therapies for Insomnia Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Jama Psychiatry, July 2020. Pubmed, doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.1767. Full Text

Krystal, Andrew D., et al. “A randomized proof-of-mechanism trial applying the 'fast-fail' approach to evaluating κ-opioid antagonism as a treatment for anhedonia.Nat Med, vol. 26, no. 5, May 2020, pp. 760–68. Pubmed, doi:10.1038/s41591-020-0806-7. Full Text

Krystal, Andrew D. “Omitted Conflict of Interest Disclosures.Jama Psychiatry, Apr. 2020. Pubmed, doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.0616. Full Text

Pages

Doghramji, Karl, et al. “PITOLISANT IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER MEDICATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF NARCOLEPSY.” Sleep, vol. 42, OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019.

Ohayon, Maurice M., et al. “Longitudinal Evolution of Narcolepsy Symptoms in Simplex and Multiplex Families.” Annals of Neurology, vol. 84, WILEY, 2018, pp. S129–30.

Lunsford-Avery, J. R., et al. “SLEEPING AT HOME: FEASIBILITY AND TOLERABILITY OF AMBULATORY POLYSOMNOGRAPHY FOR USE WITH ADOLESCENTS WITH ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER.” Sleep, vol. 41, OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018, pp. A283–84.

Blanco, Marina B., et al. “To arouse or not to arouse: physiological responses from active thermogenesis versus thermoconforming in hibernating dwarf lemurs.” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 165, WILEY, 2018, pp. 30–30.

Morin, C. M., et al. “0341 SEQUENTIAL THERAPIES FOR COMORBID AND PRIMARY INSOMNIA: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL.” Sleep, vol. 40, no. suppl_1, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017, pp. A127–A127. Crossref, doi:10.1093/sleepj/zsx050.340. Full Text

Edinger, J. D., et al. “0335 DOES OBJECTIVE SLEEP DURATION MODERATE TREATMENT RESPONSE IN PATIENT WITH COMORBID DEPRESSION AND INSOMNIA? A REPORT FROM THE TRIAD STUDY.” Sleep, vol. 40, no. suppl_1, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017, pp. A124–A124. Crossref, doi:10.1093/sleepj/zsx050.334. Full Text

Sateia, M. J., et al. “0395 CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE FOR THE PHARMACOLOGIC TREATMENT OF CHRONIC INSOMNIA IN ADULTS: AN AMERICAN ACADEMY OF SLEEP MEDICINE CLINICAL PRACTICE GUIDELINE.” Sleep, vol. 40, no. suppl_1, Oxford University Press (OUP), 2017, pp. A147–A147. Crossref, doi:10.1093/sleepj/zsx050.394. Full Text

Dieffenderfer, J., et al. “Shedding light to sleep studies.” Proceedings of Spie  the International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 10352, 2017. Scopus, doi:10.1117/12.2275625. Full Text

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