Andrew Darrell Krystal

Andrew Darrell Krystal

Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

External Address: 
54221 Hosp South, Durham, NC 27710
Internal Office Address: 
Box 3309 Med Ctr, Durham, NC 27710
Phone: 
919.681.8742

Overview

My research is focused on better understanding the pathophysiology of sleep disorders and mood disorders and developing improved treatments for these conditions. My primary research tools are: electroencepahlography (EEG), polysomnography (PSG), computer signal analysis and modeling, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and positron emission tomograophy (PET). Nearly all of my projects have been carried out with humans, however, projects are ongoing with gene knock-out models in mice, and lemurs in collaboration with the Duke Primate Center. A few representative current studies are: 1) Defining physiologic (EEG, PSG, PET, fMRI) correlates of sleep complaints and subtyping insomnia on the basis of the associated pathophysiology, 2) Studying the relationship of EEG data recorded during non-REM sleep, daytime function, and insomnia treatment response, 3) Developing new pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for insomnia, 4) Studying the relationship of natural sleep and hibernation-like phenomena (torpor), 5) Predicting depression treatment response on the basis of pre-treatment EEG and structural MRI data.

Education & Training

  • M.D., Duke University 1987

Selected Grants

Obstructive Sleep Apnea Screening in Pregnant Women with Chronic Hypertension awarded by Society for Obstetric Anesthesia and Perinatology (Significant Contributor). 2017 to 2020

KOR Phase 2A Study - Mod 3 (Advanced Understanding) awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2017

Modified KOR Phase 2A Study awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2014 to 2017

Janssen OBSERVEMDD0001 awarded by Janssen Research & Development, LLC (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

2/3 Reducing Suicide Ideation Through Insomnia Treatment (REST-IT) awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2012 to 2017

Multicenter Study of the Safety and Efficacy of JZP-110 awarded by Jazz Pharmaceuticals (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) as a Treatment for Acute Fear awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2015 to 2017

The Duke Multidisciplinary Training Program in Pediatric Lung Disease awarded by National Institutes of Health (Faculty Member). 2010 to 2016

An Open-Label and Double-Blind Study to Investigate Evoked Potentials as Markers of Ketamine-Induced Cortical Plasticity awarded by Janssen Research & Development, LLC (Principal Investigator). 2013 to 2015

Pages

Krystal, A. D. “Benzodiazepine receptor agonists: Indications, efficacy, and outcome.” Insomnia: Diagnosis and Treatment, 2016, pp. 375–86.

Krystal, A. D. “Psychiatric disorders and EEG.” Niedermeyer’s Electroencephalography: Basic Principles, Clinical Applications, and Related Fields: Sixth Edition, 2012, pp. 1113–27.

Krystal, A. D. “Sleep and psychiatric disorders.” Handbook of Sleep Medicine, 2011.

Low, Y., and A. D. Krystal. “Daytime sleepiness in insomnia patients.” Sleepiness: Causes, Consequences and Treatment, 2011, pp. 168–75. Scopus, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511762697.018. Full Text

Krystal, A. D. “Pharmacologic Treatment: Other Medications.” Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine: Fifth Edition, 2010, pp. 916–30. Scopus, doi:10.1016/B978-1-4160-6645-3.00082-7. Full Text

Krystal, A. D. “Geriatric psychopharmacology: An overview.” Principles and Practice of Geriatric Sleep Medicine, 2009, pp. 327–31. Scopus, doi:10.1017/CBO9780511770661.034. Full Text

Richey, S. M., and A. D. Krystal. “Sleep medications: When to prescribe and rationale for use.” Sleep Disorders: Diagnosis and Therapeutics, 2008, pp. 268–80.

Culpepper, Larry, et al. “Post Hoc Analysis of the Impact of Lemborexant on Patient-Reported Sleep and Insomnia Severity in Adults with Insomnia and Depression Histories.Cns Spectr, vol. 27, no. 2, Apr. 2022, p. 243. Pubmed, doi:10.1017/S1092852922000499. Full Text

Felder, J. N., et al. “Examining Experiences of Poor Sleep During Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study to Inform the Development of a Prenatal Sleep Intervention.” Global Advances in Health and Medicine, vol. 11, Mar. 2022. Scopus, doi:10.1177/2164957X221087655. Full Text

Whitehurst, Lauren N., et al. “Links between the brain and body during sleep: implications for memory processing.Trends Neurosci, vol. 45, no. 3, Mar. 2022, pp. 212–23. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.tins.2021.12.007. Full Text

Sforzini, Luca, et al. “A Delphi-method-based consensus guideline for definition of treatment-resistant depression for clinical trials.Mol Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 3, Mar. 2022, pp. 1286–99. Pubmed, doi:10.1038/s41380-021-01381-x. Full Text

Felder, Jennifer N., et al. “Randomized controlled trial of digital cognitive behavior therapy for prenatal insomnia symptoms: effects on postpartum insomnia and mental health.Sleep, vol. 45, no. 2, Feb. 2022. Pubmed, doi:10.1093/sleep/zsab280. Full Text

Arnedt, J. Todd, et al. “Telemedicine-delivered cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia in alcohol use disorder (AUD): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.Trials, vol. 23, no. 1, Jan. 2022, p. 59. Pubmed, doi:10.1186/s13063-021-05898-y. Full Text

Wickwire, Emerson M., et al. “Trajectories of Insomnia in Adults After Traumatic Brain Injury.Jama Netw Open, vol. 5, no. 1, Jan. 2022, p. e2145310. Pubmed, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.45310. Full Text

Lunsford-Avery, Jessica R., et al. “Overnight Delta Dynamics Associated with Daytime Psychomotor Performance in Adults with Insomnia and Healthy Controls.Nat Sci Sleep, vol. 14, 2022, pp. 217–30. Pubmed, doi:10.2147/NSS.S330939. Full Text

Krystal, Andrew D., et al. “What Is Insomnia?Jama, vol. 326, no. 23, Dec. 2021, p. 2444. Pubmed, doi:10.1001/jama.2021.19283. Full Text

McCall, William V., et al. “Examining suicide assessment measures for research use: Using item response theory to optimize psychometric assessment for research on suicidal ideation in major depressive disorder.Suicide Life Threat Behav, vol. 51, no. 6, Dec. 2021, pp. 1086–94. Pubmed, doi:10.1111/sltb.12791. Full Text

Pages

Scangos, Katherine, et al. “Corticocortical Evoked Potentials and Patient Response Reveal Networks Underlying Depression.” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 87, no. 9, 2020, pp. S157–S157.

Lunsford-Avery, J. R., et al. “SLEEP ASSOCIATED WITH EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING AMONG ADOLESCENTS ACROSS THE ADHD CONTINUUM.” Sleep, vol. 43, 2020, pp. A373–A373.

Ohayon, M. M., et al. “FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONTINUOUS USE OF PSYCHOTROPIC TREATMENTS FOR NARCOLEPSY.” Sleep, vol. 43, 2020, pp. A294–A294.

Ohayon, M. M., and A. D. Krystal. “SLEEP IMPACTS OF NOCTURIA IN A LONGITUDINAL STUDY.” Sleep Medicine, vol. 64, 2019, pp. S284–85.

Ohayon, Maurice M., et al. “Narcolepsy Symptoms are Highly Persistent over Time Despite Treatment.” Annals of Neurology, vol. 86, WILEY, 2019, pp. S122–S122.

Ohayon, Maurice M., et al. “Longitudinal Assessment of Psychotropic Treatments for Narcolepsy.” Annals of Neurology, vol. 86, WILEY, 2019, pp. S212–S212.

Doghramji, Karl, et al. “PITOLISANT IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER MEDICATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF NARCOLEPSY.” Sleep, vol. 42, OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2019.

Ohayon, Maurice M., et al. “Longitudinal Evolution of Narcolepsy Symptoms in Simplex and Multiplex Families.” Annals of Neurology, vol. 84, WILEY, 2018, pp. S129–30.

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