Craig S. Henriquez

Craig S. Henriquez

Professor of Biomedical Engineering

External Address: 
274 Hudson Hall Annex, Durham, NC 27708
Internal Office Address: 
Duke Box 90281, Durham, NC 27708-0281


Dr. Henriquez is also a Professor of Computer Science and Co-Director of the Center for Neuroengineering. Henriquez's research interests include large scale computing, heart modeling, and brain modeling.

A breakdown of the normal electrical activation sequence of the heart can sometimes lead to a state of ventricular fibrillation in which the heart ceases to function as an effective pump. Abnormal rhythms or arrhythmias often result after an episode of ischemia (a localized reduction of blood flow to the heart itself) which affects both the ionic processes necessary to elicit an impulse and the passive electrical properties of the tissue. Identifying the complex mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis will require experimentation as well as mathematical and computer models.

Current projects include the application of the bidomain model to diseased tissue to investigate how changes in tissue structure (both natural and diseased induced) and changes in ionic current flow influences the nature of conduction and the onset of arrhythmia.

Dr. Henriquez's group is also interested in developing realistic models that will enable investigators to better interpret electrophysiological measurements made in the clinic. For example, activation maps at the surface of the heart are typically constructed based on the detection of specific features of the surface extracellular recordings. However, for complex activation, such as might arise during an arrhythmia, the features are difficult to distinguish.

The use of models that simulate both activation and the resulting extracellular potential and the application of signal processing techniques can lead to a tool for constructing more meaningful maps from experimental recordings during abnormal conduction. This works involves direct interaction with experimental research performed in the Experimental Electrophysiology Laboratory under the direction of Dr. Patrick Wolf and the Cardiac Electrophysiology & Tissue Engineering lab under the direction of Dr. Nenad Bursac.

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Duke University 1988

  • B.S., Duke University 1981

Selected Grants

Engineered BacNav and BacCav for Improved Excitability and Contraction awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co Investigator). 2022 to 2026

Multiscale Modeling of Clotting Risk in Atrial Fibrillation awarded by University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill (Principal Investigator). 2018 to 2022

Engineering of Human Excitable Tissues from Unexcitable Cells awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co Investigator). 2016 to 2022

In Vitro and In Situ Engineering of Fibroblasts for Cardiac Repair awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co Investigator). 2016 to 2022

Heart Risk Model awarded by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Co Investigator). 2013 to 2016

Modeling Cardiac Impulse Propagation at the Microscale awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2009 to 2015

Analysis and Design of Cultured Neuronal Networks for Adaptive and Reconfigurable Control awarded by National Science Foundation (Investigator). 2009 to 2014

Duke Coulter Translational Partnership - Yr 2 post-endowment awarded by Duke Coulter Translational Partnership (Principal Investigator). 2013 to 2014

Low Impedance Electrodes for Neural Stimulation awarded by National Institutes of Health (Investigator). 2007 to 2011

Laboratory Exercises in Quantitative Physiology awarded by Lord Foundation of North Carolina (Principal Investigator). 2009 to 2010


Nguyen, Hung X., et al. “Engineered bacterial voltage-gated sodium channel platform for cardiac gene therapy.Nat Commun, vol. 13, no. 1, Feb. 2022, p. 620. Pubmed, doi:10.1038/s41467-022-28251-6. Full Text

Pelot, Nicole A., et al. “Excitation properties of computational models of unmyelinated peripheral axons.Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 125, no. 1, Jan. 2021, pp. 86–104. Epmc, doi:10.1152/jn.00315.2020. Full Text

Gaeta, Stephen, et al. “High-Resolution Measurement of Local Activation Time Differences From Bipolar Electrogram Amplitude.Front Physiol, vol. 12, 2021, p. 653645. Pubmed, doi:10.3389/fphys.2021.653645. Full Text

Gaeta, Stephen, et al. “Reply to the Editor- Determinants of bipolar amplitude.Heart Rhythm, vol. 17, no. 8, Aug. 2020, p. 1415. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.02.035. Full Text

Gaeta, Stephen, et al. “Mechanism and magnitude of bipolar electrogram directional sensitivity: Characterizing underlying determinants of bipolar amplitude.Heart Rhythm, vol. 17, no. 5 Pt A, May 2020, pp. 777–85. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2019.12.010. Full Text

Eidum, Derek M., and Craig S. Henriquez. “Modeling the effects of sinusoidal stimulation and synaptic plasticity on linked neural oscillators.Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), vol. 30, no. 3, Mar. 2020, p. 033105. Epmc, doi:10.1063/1.5126104. Full Text

Gao, Xindan, et al. “Composite Backward Differentiation Formula for the Bidomain Equations.Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 11, Jan. 2020, p. 591159. Epmc, doi:10.3389/fphys.2020.591159. Full Text

Li, Guoshi, et al. “Rhythmic modulation of thalamic oscillations depends on intrinsic cellular dynamics.Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 16, no. 1, Feb. 2019, p. 016013. Epmc, doi:10.1088/1741-2552/aaeb03. Full Text

Gokhale, Tanmay A., et al. “Microheterogeneity-induced conduction slowing and wavefront collisions govern macroscopic conduction behavior: A computational and experimental study.Plos Computational Biology, vol. 14, no. 7, July 2018, p. e1006276. Epmc, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1006276. Full Text

Zhang, Xu, et al. “A Scalable Weight-Free Learning Algorithm for Regulatory Control of Cell Activity in Spiking Neuronal Networks.International Journal of Neural Systems, vol. 28, no. 2, Mar. 2018, p. 1750015. Epmc, doi:10.1142/s0129065717500150. Full Text


Gokhale, T. A., et al. “Continuous models fail to capture details of reentry in fibrotic myocardium.” Computing in Cardiology, vol. 43, 2016, pp. 1–4. Scopus, doi:10.22489/cinc.2016.052-487. Full Text

Gokhale, Tanmay A., et al. “Continuous Models Fail to Capture Details of Reentry in Fibrotic Myocardium.” 2016 Computing in Cardiology Conference (Cinc), Vol 43, edited by A. Murray, vol. 43, IEEE, 2016, pp. 169–72.

Hubbard, M. L., et al. “The effect of random cell decoupling on electrogram morphology near the percolation threshold in microstructural models of cardiac tissue.” Computing in Cardiology, vol. 41, no. January, 2014, pp. 65–68.

Hugh, G. S., and C. S. Henriquez. “Application of local learning and biological activation functions to networks of neurons for motor control.” International Ieee/Embs Conference on Neural Engineering, Ner, vol. 2003-January, 2003, pp. 233–36. Scopus, doi:10.1109/CNE.2003.1196801. Full Text

Jacquemet, V., et al. “Simulated atrial fibrillation in a computer model of human atria.” International Conference on Digital Signal Processing, Dsp, vol. 1, 2002, pp. 393–98. Scopus, doi:10.1109/ICDSP.2002.1189668. Full Text

Pollard, A. E., et al. “A comparison of iterative methods for the determination of the interstitial potential distribution with the bidomain model.” Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Embs, vol. 2, 1992, pp. 602–03. Scopus, doi:10.1109/IEMBS.1992.5761131. Full Text

Henriquez, C. S., and N. F. Hooke. “Effect of interstitial anisotropy and the extracellular volume conductor on action potential morphology in a thin layer of cardiac tissue.” Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Embs, vol. 2, 1992, pp. 600–01. Scopus, doi:10.1109/IEMBS.1992.5761130. Full Text