Warren M. Grill

Warren M. Grill

Director, Center for Neural Engineering & Neurotechnology

Professor of Biomedical Engineering

External Address: 
CIEMAS 1139, Durham, NC 27708
Internal Office Address: 
Box 90281, Dept Biomedical Engineering, Durham, NC 27708-0281
Phone: 
919.660.5276

Overview

Our research employs engineering approaches to understand and control neural function. We work on fundamental questions and applied development in electrical stimulation of the nervous system to restore function to individuals with neurological impairment or injury.

Current projects include:
• understanding the mechanisms of and developing advanced approaches to deep brain stimulation to treat movement disorders,
• developing novel approaches to peripheral nerve electrical stimulation for restoration of bladder function, 
• understanding the mechanisms of and developing advanced approaches to spinal cord stimulation to treat chronic pain,
• understanding and controlling the cellular effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation, and
• design of novel electrodes and waveforms for selective stimulation of the nervous system.

Education & Training

  • Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University 1995

  • M.S., Case Western Reserve University 1992

  • B.S., Boston University 1989

Selected Grants

Duke Women's Reproductive Health Research Scholars awarded by National Institutes of Health (Mentor). 2020 to 2025

NINDS Research Education Programs for Residents and Fellows in Neurosurgery awarded by National Institutes of Health (Mentor). 2009 to 2025

Neurobiology Training Program awarded by National Institutes of Health (Mentor). 2019 to 2024

Predicting Urinary Continence Status with Sacral Neuromodulation and Botulinum Toxin Treatments awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co-Mentor). 2020 to 2023

Duke KURe Program awarded by National Institutes of Health (Mentor). 2013 to 2023

Developing a comprehensive model for peripheral nerve stimulation of gastrointestinal function awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co Investigator). 2019 to 2023

Underactive Bladder: Mechanisms and Recovery of Sensation and Function awarded by National Institutes of Health (Mentor). 2019 to 2023

Analysis and Design of µECoG Array Characteristics for Optimized Signal Acquisition awarded by National Institutes of Health (Co-Mentor). 2020 to 2023

Temporal Patterns of Spinal Cord Stimulation awarded by National Institutes of Health (Principal Investigator). 2019 to 2022

Pages

Hokanson, J. A., et al. “Neuroprosthetic control of lower urinary tract function.” Neuroprosthetics: Theory and Practice: Second Edition, 2017, pp. 537–65. Scopus, doi:10.1142/9789813207158_0017. Full Text

Howell, B., and W. M. Grill. “Design of electrodes for stimulation and recording.” Implantable Neuroprostheses for Restoring Function, 2015, pp. 59–93. Scopus, doi:10.1016/B978-1-78242-101-6.00004-5. Full Text

Howell, Bryan, and Warren M. Grill. “Computational Models to Optimize the Electrodes and Waveforms for Deep Brain Stimulation.Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience, edited by Dieter Jaeger and Ranu Jung, Springer, 2014.

McGee, Meredith, and Warren M. Grill. “Methodologies for the Restoration of Bladder and Bowel Functions.Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience, edited by Dieter Jaeger and Ranu Jung, Springer, 2014.

Medina, Leonel E., and Warren M. Grill. “Mammalian Motor Nerve Fibers, Models of.Encyclopedia of Computational Neuroscience, edited by Dieter Jaeger and Ranu Jung, Springer, 2014.

Grill, W. M. “Signal considerations for chronically implanted electrodes for brain interfacing.” Indwelling Neural Implants: Strategies for Contending with the in Vivo Environment, 2007, pp. 41–61.

Lee, D. C., et al. “Extracellular electrical stimulation of central neurons: Quantitative studies.” Handbook of Neuroprosthetic Methods, 2002, pp. 95–125.

Nicolai, Evan N., et al. “Sources of off-target effects of vagus nerve stimulation using the helical clinical lead in domestic pigs.Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 17, no. 4, July 2020, p. 046017. Epmc, doi:10.1088/1741-2552/ab9db8. Full Text

Steadman, Casey J., and Warren M. Grill. “Spinal cord stimulation for the restoration of bladder function after spinal cord injury.Healthcare Technology Letters, vol. 7, no. 3, June 2020, pp. 87–92. Epmc, doi:10.1049/htl.2020.0026. Full Text

Yi, Guosheng, and Warren M. Grill. “Kilohertz waveforms optimized to produce closed-state Na+ channel inactivation eliminate onset response in nerve conduction block.Plos Computational Biology, vol. 16, no. 6, June 2020, p. e1007766. Epmc, doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007766. Full Text

Langdale, Christopher L., et al. “Stimulation of the pelvic nerve increases bladder capacity in the PGE2 cat model of overactive bladder.American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology, vol. 318, no. 6, June 2020, pp. F1357–68. Epmc, doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00068.2020. Full Text

Yu, Chunxiu, et al. “Frequency-Specific Optogenetic Deep Brain Stimulation of Subthalamic Nucleus Improves Parkinsonian Motor Behaviors.The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience, vol. 40, no. 22, May 2020, pp. 4323–34. Epmc, doi:10.1523/jneurosci.3071-19.2020. Full Text

Settell, Megan L., et al. “Functional vagotopy in the cervical vagus nerve of the domestic pig: implications for the study of vagus nerve stimulation.Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 17, no. 2, Apr. 2020, p. 026022. Epmc, doi:10.1088/1741-2552/ab7ad4. Full Text

Grill, Warren M., and Amorn Wongsarnpigoon. “Energy Optimal Stimulation Waveforms, Or Not: Comments on "An Investigation of Neural Stimulation Efficiency With Gaussian Waveforms".Ieee Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering : A Publication of the Ieee Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, Mar. 2020. Epmc, doi:10.1109/tnsre.2020.2984402. Full Text

Pelot, N. A., and W. M. Grill. “In vivo quantification of excitation and kilohertz frequency block of the rat vagus nerve.Journal of Neural Engineering, vol. 17, no. 2, Mar. 2020, p. 026005. Epmc, doi:10.1088/1741-2552/ab6cb6. Full Text

Schmidt, Stephen L., et al. “Continuous deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus may not modulate beta bursts in patients with Parkinson's disease.Brain Stimul, vol. 13, no. 2, Mar. 2020, pp. 433–43. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.brs.2019.12.008. Full Text

Swan, Brandon D., et al. “Effects of ramped-frequency thalamic deep brain stimulation on tremor and activity of modeled neurons.Clin Neurophysiol, vol. 131, no. 3, Mar. 2020, pp. 625–34. Pubmed, doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2019.11.060. Full Text

Pages

Gao, Q., et al. “Model-based design of closed loop deep brain stimulation controller using reinforcement learning.” Proceedings  2020 Acm/Ieee 11th International Conference on Cyber Physical Systems, Iccps 2020, 2020, pp. 108–18. Scopus, doi:10.1109/ICCPS48487.2020.00018. Full Text

Jovanov, I., et al. “Platform for Model-Based Design and Testing for Deep Brain Stimulation.” Proceedings  9th Acm/Ieee International Conference on Cyber Physical Systems, Iccps 2018, 2018, pp. 263–74. Scopus, doi:10.1109/ICCPS.2018.00033. Full Text

Jovanov, I., et al. “Learning-Based Control Design for Deep Brain Stimulation.” Proceedings  9th Acm/Ieee International Conference on Cyber Physical Systems, Iccps 2018, 2018, pp. 349–50. Scopus, doi:10.1109/ICCPS.2018.00048. Full Text

Lubba, C., et al. “Real-time decoding of bladder pressure from pelvic nerve activity CP.” International Ieee/Embs Conference on Neural Engineering, Ner, 2017, pp. 617–20. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NER.2017.8008427. Full Text

Behrend, C. E., et al. “Quantification of beta activity with disease progression in EEG recordings in Parkinson's disease patients.” Movement Disorders, vol. 30, WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2015, pp. S31–S31.

Pelot, N. A., et al. “Modeling the response of small myelinated and unmyelinated axons to kilohertz frequency signals.” International Ieee/Embs Conference on Neural Engineering, Ner, vol. 2015-July, 2015, pp. 406–09. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NER.2015.7146645. Full Text

Medina, L. E., and W. M. Grill. “Phantom model of transcutaneous electrical stimulation with kilohertz signals.” International Ieee/Embs Conference on Neural Engineering, Ner, vol. 2015-July, 2015, pp. 430–33. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NER.2015.7146651. Full Text

McConnell, G. C., and W. M. Grill. “Stimulation location within the substantia nigra pars reticulata differentially modulates gait in hemiparkinsonian rats.” International Ieee/Embs Conference on Neural Engineering, Ner, 2013, pp. 1210–13. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NER.2013.6696157. Full Text

McGee, M. J., and W. M. Grill. “Temporal patterns of pudendal afferent stimulation modulate reflex bladder activation.” International Ieee/Embs Conference on Neural Engineering, Ner, 2013, pp. 843–46. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NER.2013.6696066. Full Text

Howell, B., and W. M. Grill. “Model-based optimization of electrode designs for deep brain stimulation.” International Ieee/Embs Conference on Neural Engineering, Ner, 2013, pp. 154–57. Scopus, doi:10.1109/NER.2013.6695895. Full Text

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